Temporary Protected Status, also known as TPS, is an immigration act that was enacted in 1990. TPS is granted to nationals of 10-designated countries and in order to qualify for TPS the recipients of these benefits must have been continuously present in the United States since the date their country of origin was either designated as eligible for TPS or re-designated for TPS. The current 10-designated countries include: El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Nepal, Nicaragua, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen. A country may become designated as eligible for TPS if conditions in that country temporarily prevent the country’s nationals from returning safely. Additionally, a country may become designated as eligible for TPS if certain circumstances going on in the country are considered dangerous for the country’s nationals. Such circumstances may include conflict, or major natural disasters. And those individuals whom are eligible include citizens who are already in the United States.
Of the 10-designated countries, Haitian nationals are in imminent danger of losing TPS sooner than the other 10 countries. Haitians were granted protection from deportation in 2010 when a major earthquake hit their homeland and currently, there are approximately 58,706 Haitians benefiting from TPS. Haitians were due to lose their TPS on July 22, 2017, however, they were granted a six-month extension and their benefits will now expire on January 22, 2018.
Both Sudan and South Sudan’s designations were due to expire as of November 2, 2017, however, DHS Secretary Eliane Duke has decided to extend South Sudan’s TPS until May 2, 2019 due to the country’s ongoing conflict and the possibility that the country’s nationals will not be able to return to the country safely. South Sudan, which became independent from Sudan in 2011, dissolved into civil war less than two-years after it separated from Sudan. Since then, 3.5 million of the country’s population have fled their homes as a result of the conflict. Meanwhile, Sudan’s designation will expire effective November 2, 2018.
The effort to allow extensions for certain nationals from qualifying countries is in an effort to allow TPS recipients ample time to secure travel documents as well as time to make other necessary travel arrangements for their departure. Most nationals are now concerned with their ability to return safely, as well as work authorization in the U.S. and the fleeting notion of having to start over in their home countries again. There are currently concerns that countries will not be ready (and will not have the resources necessary) to receive tens of thousands of new inhabitants back to countries that they needed protection from in the first place. Form DHS Secretary John Kelly has indicated that all immigration programs are being re-evaluated and each designated country will be decided upon on an individual basis.
Haiti, El Salvador and Honduras nationals comprise approximately 90% of TPS holders
Approximately 50% o all TPS holders have been in the United States for more than 20-years.
Approximately 50% are homeowners and 87% Speak English
TPS holders are contributing members of society and they are parents to more than 273,000 United States Citizen Children
More specifically, the beginning of the end of TPS is greatly going to affect those residents living in California as there are tens of thousands of recipients and their United States Born children living in this state.
Below, please see a breakdown of TPS recipients residing in California and their effects on the Economy:
49,100 Salvadorans in California are TPS holders; and,
50,300 U.S.-born children in California have Salvadoran parents who are TPS holders;
Salvadoran TPS holders in California have lived in the United States for an average of 22 years; and,
8,700 households of Salvadoran TPS holders in California have mortgages.
5,900 Hondurans in California are TPS holders;
4,400 U.S.-born children in California have Honduran parents who are TPS holders; and,
Honduran TPS holders in California have lived in the United States for an average of 23 years.
California also receives economic benefits as a result of TPS Recipients:
39,400 workers in California are Salvadoran TPS holders;
$2.4 billion would be lost from state GDP annually without Salvadoran workers who
5 percent of Salvadoran workers with TPS work in accommodation and food services;
14 percent work in construction; and,
9 percent work in administrative and support and waste management services.
5,100 workers in California are Honduran TPS holders;
$307.3 million would be lost from state GDP annually without Honduran workers who hold TPS; and,
21 percent of Honduran workers with TPS work in construction;
9 percent work in other services, except public administration; and,
1 percent work in manufacturing.
The ultimate end to TPS will have a severe economic impact on the U.S. as well. TPS holders are afforded legal work authorization which is subject to renewal after the authorization period expires, but they are legally allowed to work in the United States nonetheless. There are also high costs associated with deporting Salvadoran, Honduran, and Haitian TPS holders. The cost of deporting these nationals once their statuses are terminated is approximately $3.1 billion. The imminent deportation of TPS recipients would also deprive Social Security and Medicaid programs by $6.9 billion over a decade. In addition, turnover costs for employers of TPS holders would nearly total $1 billion. While there are some immigrant advocacy groups that are worried that the Trump administration will refuse to renew the status of some of the countries covered by TPS, status determinations are upcoming for the designated countries. TPS status determinations are upcoming for Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Syria in the early part of 2018. The determinations for Nepal, Yemen and Somalia are expected to occur later in 2018. The current presidential administration recently terminated DACA and it is now en route to terminate TPS. 700,000 young people who were once DACA recipients will now be alongside approximately 320,000 TPS holders, which will increase the number of the undocumented population by 1 Million people.
While we wait for the administration to make their determinations about TPS, tens of thousands of people will await their fate.